Periodontal therapy consists of a set of surgical and non-surgical treatments in case of periodontitis. With the technology advances and the introduction of new methods for non-surgical periodontal therapy, several procedures such as the removal of contaminated root cement have been ignored. As well, the use of antibiotic therapy as an adjunct to root scaling is a topic to be discussed. Surgery has long been compared to non-surgical methods as both treatments aim to control infection and to preserve the periodontium and teeth. Mechanical debridement and optimal plaque control remain essential for successful nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy.